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#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China: Preventing the Next #SARS (@WHO, Apr. 2 ‘17)

  Title : #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China: Preventing the Next #SARS. Subject : Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype (Asian Lineage), poultry e...

23 May 2017

#Avian #Influenza [#H7N9, #H5N1, #H5N6] #Report - May 14-20 ‘17 (Wk20) (#HK CHP May 23, 2017)

 

Title: #Avian #Influenza [#H7N9, #H5N1, #H5N6] #Report - May 14-20 ‘17 (Wk20).

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5, H7 & H9 subtypes, human cases in China and global poultry panzootic.

Source: Centre for Health Protection, Hong Kong PRC SAR, full PDF file: (LINK).

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Avian Influenza Report - Reporting period: May 14, 2017 – May 20, 2017 (Week 20) (Published on May 23, 2017)

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Avian Influenza Report is a weekly report produced by the Respiratory Disease Office, Centre for Heath Protection of the Department of Health. This report highlights global avian influenza activity in humans and birds.

VOLUME 13, NUMBER 20

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Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Updates; H7N9; H5N1; H5N6; H9N2; Human; Poultry; China; Worldwide.

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#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China, #Update – as of May 23 2017 (@CDCgov, edited)

 

Title: #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China, #Update – as of May 23 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, human cases in China; pandemic preparedness planning.

Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), full page: (LINK).

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H7N9 in China, Update – as of May 23 2017

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Language: [ English (US) | Español ]

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More Human Infections Reported as CDC Prepares to Ship New Candidate Vaccine Virus

May 23, 2017 — Today the World Health Organization (WHO) reported another 23 human infections with Asian H7N9 bird flu, bringing the total number of such infections during the current (fifth) epidemic to 688.

This is the largest epidemic of Asian H7N9 human infections in China since this virus emerged to infect people in 2013.

CDC has completed development of a new Asian H7N9 candidate vaccine virus (CVV) that is matched to a recently emerged lineage of Asian H7N9 viruses which have predominated during the fifth epidemic and which could be used to make vaccine if one were needed.

CDC has been monitoring the Asian H7N9 situation closely since 2013 and taken routine preparedness measures, including previously developing three candidate vaccine viruses.

Besides an increase in the number of infections being reported during the current epidemic and an increase in the geographic areas in China where human infections with Asian H7N9 are being reported, the epidemiology of H7N9 virus infections in humans does not appear to have changed.

Most human infections with Asian H7N9 continue to be associated with exposure to poultry and there is no sustained person-to-person spread of this virus, however, there have been some changes in recent Asian H7N9 viruses identified that are of public health concern.

Most recent viruses belong to a lineage of Asian H7N9 called Yangtze River Delta.

Antigenic analysis of some viruses belonging to the Yangtze River Delta lineage has showed reduced cross-reactivity with previously produced CVVs, suggesting that stockpiled vaccine made with earlier CVVs will not protect against the Yangtze River Delta lineage viruses now circulating.

Also, based on publically available genetic data, about 10% of viruses from the 5th epidemic have markers indicating reduced susceptibility (resistance) to one or more neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral medications, which are the only currently recommended treatment for avian influenza infections in people.

The new CDC CVV was derived from a low pathogenic avian influenza A/Hunan/2650/2016-like virus and was made using reverse genetics.

Creating a candidate vaccine virus is a multistep process that takes months to complete.

At this time, CDC is coordinating shipping of the new Asian H7N9 CVV to various manufacturers.

Information about the availability of the CVV was posted on the WHO website on Friday, May 18, 2017 at http://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/candidates_reagents/a_h7n9/en/.

The cumulative number of human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses reported by WHO between 2013 and May 23, 2017, was 1,486.

During the first four epidemics, most human infections occurred between December and March.

While new infections continue to be reported, the number of new infections being reported each week has declined since the peak of activity during January of the current epidemic.

More information about Asian H7N9 is available at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/h7n9-virus.htm(https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/h7n9-virus.htm) and http://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/influenza_h7n9/en/.

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Keywords: US CDC; Updates; Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; China; Vaccines.

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#WHA elects Dr Tedros Adhanom #Ghebreyesus as new #WHO #Director-General (@WHO, May 23 ‘17)

 

Title: #WHA elects Dr Tedros Adhanom #Ghebreyesus as new #WHO #Director-General.

Subject: World Health Organization governance, newly appointed director-general.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK).

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World Health Assembly elects Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus as new WHO Director-General

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News release / 23 May 2017 / GENEVA

Today the Member States of WHO elected Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus as the new Director-General of WHO.

Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus was nominated by the Government of Ethiopia, and will begin his five-year term on 1 July 2017.

Prior to his election as WHO’s next Director-General, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus served as Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ethiopia from 2012-2016 and as Minister of Health, Ethiopia from 2005-2012.

He has also served as chair of the Board of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria; as chair of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) Partnership Board, and as co-chair of the Board of the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health.

As Minister of Health, Ethiopia, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus led a comprehensive reform effort of the country's health system, including the expansion of the country’s health infrastructure, creating 3500 health centres and 16 000 health posts; expanded the health workforce by 38 000 health extension workers; and initiated financing mechanisms to expand health insurance coverage. As Minister of Foreign Affairs, he led the effort to negotiate the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, in which 193 countries committed to the financing necessary to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

As Chair of the Global Fund and of RBM, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus secured record funding for the two organizations and created the Global Malaria Action Plan, which expanded RBM’s reach beyond Africa to Asia and Latin America.

Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus will succeed Dr Margaret Chan, who has been WHO’s Director-General since 1 January 2007.

For more information, please contact: Gregory Härtl, WHO Department of Communications, Mobile: +41 79 203 67 15, Email: hartlg@who.int | Ms Fadéla Chaib, WHO Department of Communications, Mobile: +41 79 475 5556, Email: chaibf@who.int | Mr Tarik Jasarevic, WHO Department of Communications, Mobile: +41 79 367 6214, Email: jasarevict@who.int | Mr Christian Lindmeier, WHO Department of Communications, Mobile: +41 79 500 6552, Email: lindmeierch@who.int

 

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Keywords: WHO; Updates.

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#Ebola Virus Disease – #DRC – #Situation #Report 8 – May 23 2017 (@WHO, AFRO, edited)

 

Title: #Ebola Virus Disease – #DRC – #Situation #Report 8 – May 23 2017.

Subject: EVD outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo, current situation.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), Office for Africa Region, full PDF file: (LINK).

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Ebola Virus Disease – Democratic Republic of Congo – Situation Report 8 – May 23 2017

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Ebola; Dem. Rep. Congo.

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#HK, Suspected #MERS case reported (CHP, May 23 ‘17)

 

Title: #HK, Suspected #MERS case reported.

Subject: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, suspected imported case in Hong Kong.

Source: Centre for Health Protection, Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).

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Suspected MERS case reported

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The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health today (May 23) reported a suspected case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and again urged the public to pay special attention to safety during travel, taking due consideration of health risks of the places of visit.

The case is detailed below:

  • Sex – Female
  • Age – 17
  • Affected areas involved - Israel, Jordan
  • Hospital - Princess Margaret Hospital
  • Condition – Stable
  • MERS-CoV preliminary test result – Pending

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(…)

Travellers to affected areas should maintain vigilance, adopt appropriate health precautions and take heed of personal, food and environmental hygiene.

The public may visit:

Tour leaders and tour guides operating overseas tours are advised to refer to the CHP's health advice on MERS.

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Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Updates; MERS-CoV.

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#China, #Shanxi province reported its second #human case of #H7N9 #influenza (May 23 ‘17)

 

Title: China, Shanxi province reported its second human case of H7N9 influenza.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, human case in Shanxi province of China.

Source: Local Media, full page: (LINK). Article in Chinese, edited.

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China, Shanxi province reported its second human case of H7N9 influenza

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BEIJING, Taiyuan, May 23 - 23 pm, Shanxi Province Health and Family Planning Commission, through its official website, said that Taiyuan reported one confirmed human case of H7N9 influenza.

Up to now, a total of 2 cases of H7N9 have been confirmed in Shanxi.

The new case is a male, 57 years old, farmer, Shanxi Province, Xinzhou City. On May 7, 2017 he developed fever, cough, fatigue and other symptoms, then rushed to the hospital for treatment. On May 23, the provincial expert group combined with the history of patient with epidemiology, clinical manifestations and laboratory tests to diagnose the case as an H7N9 one.

He is currently in Taiyuan Fourth People's Hospital for treatment.

Up to now, 2 cases of H7N9 confirmed cases in Shanxi Province. Informed that the epidemic occurred, the Shanxi Provincial Party Committee, the provincial government attaches great importance to all levels of scientific and orderly conduct of joint defense control, health care departments to treat patients.

After medical surveillance, the 2 cases close contacts showed no clinical abnormalities. (Finish)

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Keywords: China; Shanxi; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Human.

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#Cholera cases in the Horn of #Africa and Gulf of #Aden – 19 May 2017 (@ECDC_EU, summary)

 

Title: #Cholera cases in the Horn of #Africa and Gulf of #Aden – 19 May 2017.

Subject: Cholera outbreaks in Yemen, Somalia; current situation and recommendation.

Source: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), full page: (LINK). Summary.

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RAPID RISK ASSESSMENT

Cholera cases in the Horn of Africa and Gulf of Aden – 19 May 2017

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Suggested citation: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Increase of cholera cases in the Horn of Africa and the Gulf of Aden – risk for EU/EEA citizens – 19 May 2017. Stockholm: ECDC; 2017. 

© European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, 2017

 

Main conclusions and options for response 

  • There has been an unusual increase in the number of cases of cholera in the Horn of Africa and the Gulf of Aden in recent years.
  • Despite the large number of travellers from the EU/EEA visiting countries in the Horn of Africa and the Gulf of Aden, particularly Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania, very few cases are reported each year among returning EU/EEA travellers.
  • In this context, the risk of cholera infection in travellers visiting these countries remains low, even though the likelihood of sporadic importation of cases may increase in the EU/EEA.
  • According to the World Health Organization, vaccination should be considered for travellers at higher risk such as emergency/relief workers who are likely to be directly exposed.
  • Vaccination is generally not recommended for other travellers [1]. 
  • Travellers to cholera endemic areas should seek advice from travel health clinics to assess their personal risk and apply precautionary sanitary and hygiene measures to prevent infection.
  • These can include drinking bottled water or water treated with chlorine, carefully washing fruits and vegetables with bottled or chlorinated water before consumption, regularly hand washing with soap, eating thoroughly cooked food and avoiding consumption of raw seafood products. 

(…)

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Keywords: ECDC; European Region; Updates; Cholera; Ethiopia; Somalia; Kenya; Yemen; Tanzania.

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#Human #infection with #avian #influenza A(#H7N9) virus – #China (@WHO, May 23 ‘17)

 

Title: #Human #infection with #avian #influenza A(#H7N9) virus – #China.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, human cases in China.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK).

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Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China

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Disease outbreak news  / 23 May 2017

On 13 May 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (NHFPC) notified WHO of 23 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China.

 

Details of the case patients

  • Onset dates ranged from 11 April to 6 May 2017.
  • Of these 23 case patients, ten were female.
  • The median age was 58 years (range 31 to 83 years).
  • The case patients were reported from:
    1. Beijing (2),
    2. Fujian (1),
    3. Gansu (1),
    4. Hebei (5),
    5. Henan (3),
    6. Hubei (1),
    7. Jiangsu (2),
    8. Shaanxi (3),
    9. Sichuan (3),
    10. Tianjin (1), and
    11. Zhejiang (1).
  • At the time of notification, there were seven deaths, 15 case patients were diagnosed as having either pneumonia (5) or severe pneumonia (10), and one case was mild.
  • Nineteen case patients were reported to have had exposure to poultry or live poultry market, one case patient was reported to have visited a patient with avian influenza A(H7N9) in the hospital, one case patient was reported to have had both exposure to live poultry and a contact with a confirmed case, and two were reported to have had no known poultry exposure.
  • Two clusters were reported:
    1. A 63-year-old male from Xi’an, Shaanxi Province. He had symptom onset on 29 April 2017 and was admitted to hospital on 2 May. His symptoms were mild. He had visited a confirmed case in the hospital, a 62-year-old male from Shaanxi Province with symptom onset on 18 April 2017 and who was previously reported to WHO on 5 May.
    2. A 37-year-old female from Chengde, Hebei Province. She had symptom onset on 2 May 2017 and was admitted to hospital on 3 May with pneumonia. She raised backyard poultry before her onset. She also had contact with a confirmed case, her mother, a 62-year-old with symptom onset on 16 April 2017 and who was previously reported to WHO on 5 May.
  • To date, a total of 1486 laboratory-confirmed human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have been reported through IHR notification since early 2013.

 

Public health response

The Chinese governments at national and local levels are taking further measures, mainly including:

  • Convening a video conference with some key epidemic provinces to provide avian influenza A(H7N9) epidemic information and guidance on strengthening risk assessment and prevention and control measures.
  • Continuing to strengthen control measures with a focus on hygienic management of live poultry markets and cross-regional transportation.
  • Conducting detailed source investigations to inform effective prevention and control measures.
  • Continuing to detect and treat cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) early to reduce mortality.
  • Continuing to carry out risk communication and issue information notices to provide the public with guidance on self-protection.
  • Strengthening virology surveillance to better understand levels of virus contamination in the environment as well as mutations, in order to provide further guidance for prevention and control.

 

WHO risk assessment

The number of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) and the geographical distribution in the fifth epidemic wave (i.e. onset since 1 October 2016) is greater than in earlier waves. This suggests that the virus is spreading, and emphasizes that further intensive surveillance and control measures in both the human and animal health sector are crucial.

Most case patients are exposed to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus through contact with infected poultry or contaminated environments, including live poultry markets.

Since the virus continues to be detected in animals and environments, and live poultry vending continues, further human infections can be expected.

Although small clusters of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have been reported including those involving patients in the same ward, current epidemiological and virologic evidence suggests that this virus has not acquired the ability of sustained transmission among humans. Therefore the likelihood of further community level spread is considered low.

Close analysis of the epidemiological situation and further characterization of the most recent viruses are critical to assess associated risk and to adjust risk management measures in a timely manner.

 

WHO advice

WHO advises that travellers to countries with known outbreaks of avian influenza should avoid, if possible, poultry farms, contact with animals in live poultry markets, entering areas where poultry may be slaughtered, or contact with any surfaces that appear to be contaminated with faeces from poultry or other animals. Travellers should also wash their hands often with soap and water, and follow good food safety and good food hygiene practices.

WHO does not advise special screening at points of entry with regard to this event, nor does it currently recommend any travel or trade restrictions. As always, a diagnosis of infection with an avian influenza virus should be considered in individuals who develop severe acute respiratory symptoms while travelling in or soon after returning from an area where avian influenza is a concern.

WHO encourages countries to continue strengthening influenza surveillance, including surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) and to carefully review any unusual patterns, ensure reporting of human infections under the IHR 2005, and continue national health preparedness actions.

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; China; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Human.

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#Human Cases of #Influenza A #H7N9, #H9N2, #H5N1, #H3N2v–Montly #Report, May 22 2017 (@WHO, edited)

 

Title: #Human Cases of #Influenza A #H7N9, #H9N2, #H5N1, #H3N2v–Montly #Report, May 22 2017.

Subject: Influenza A subtypes H5, H7 & H9, human cases, worldwide, monthly report by WHO.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), full PDF file: (LINK).

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Influenza at the human-animal interface - Summary and assessment, 21 April to 16 May 2017

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Worldwide; Avian Influenza; Swine Influenza; H7N9; H9N2; H5N1; H3N2v.

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#Zika #Virus #Research #References #Library–May 23 2017 #Update, Issue No. 66

 

Title: #Zika #Virus #Research #References #Library–May 23 2017 #Update, Issue No. 66.

Subject: Zika Virus Infection and related complications research, weekly references library update.

Source: AMEDEO, homepage: (LINK).

Code: [  R  ]

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New References:

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  1. TUTIVEN JL, Pruden BT, Banks JS, Stevenson M, et al.
  2. NATHAN N.
  3. ARAGAO MFVV, Holanda AC, Brainer-Lima AM, Petribu NCL, et al.
    • Nonmicrocephalic Infants with Congenital Zika Syndrome Suspected Only after Neuroimaging Evaluation Compared with Those with Microcephaly at Birth and Postnatally: How Large Is the Zika Virus "Iceberg"?
  4. VASQUEZ D, Palacio A, Nunez J, Briones W, et al.
  5. DEMPSEY LA.
  6. IOANNOU P, Soundoulounaki S, Spernovasilis N, Papadopoulou E, et al.
  7. MINER JJ, Diamond MS.
  8. PERCIVALLE E, Zavattoni M, Fausto F, Rovida F, et al.
  9. FOLEY DH, Pecor DB.
    • A location-specific spreadsheet for estimating Zika risk and timing for Zika vector surveillance, using US military facilities as an example.
  10. RUSTIN RC, Martin D, Sevilimedu V, Pandeya S, et al.
  11. SCHWARZ NG, Mertens E, Winter D, Maiga-Ascofare O, et al.
    • No serological evidence for Zika virus infection and low specificity for anti-Zika virus ELISA in malaria positive individuals among pregnant women from Madagascar in 2010.
  12. SHAN C, Xie X, Shi PY.
  13. ROTH W, Tyshkov C, Thakur K, Vargas W, et al.
  14. MERINO-RAMOS T, Jimenez de Oya N, Saiz JC, Martin-Acebes MA, et al.
    • Antiviral activity of nordihydroguaiaretic acid and its derivative tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid against West Nile virus and Zika virus.
  15. NUGENT EK, Nugent AK, Nugent R, Nugent K, et al.
  16. NASCIMENTO OJM, Frontera JA, Amitrano DA, Bispo de Filippis AM, et al.
  17. KENNEY JL, Romo H, Duggal NK, Tzeng WP, et al.
    • Transmission Incompetence of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens pipiens from North America for Zika Virus.
  18. ZUCKER J, Neu N, Chiriboga CA, Hinton VJ, et al.
  19. BESNARD M, Dub T, Gerardin P.
  20. BROOKS T, Roy-Burman A, Tuholske C, Busch MP, et al.
  21. VAN MEER MPA, Mogling R, Klaasse J, Chandler FD, et al.
  22. FULTON BO, Sachs D, Schwarz MC, Palese P, et al.
    • Transposon mutagenesis of the Zika virus genome highlights regions essential for RNA replication and restricted for immune evasion.
  23. LIU Y, Liu J, Du S, Shan C, et al.

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Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika References Library.

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