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#Analysis of recent #scientific #information on #avian #influenza A(#H7N9) virus - 10 February 2017 (@WHO, edited)

  Title : #Analysis of recent #scientific #information on #avian #influenza A(#H7N9) virus - 10 February 2017. Subject : Avian Influenza, ...

28 Mar 2017

#Yellowfever – #Suriname (@WHO, March 28 2017)

 

Title: #Yellowfever – #Suriname.

Subject: Yellow Fever, imported case in the Netherlands from Suriname.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Yellow fever – Suriname

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Disease outbreak news / 28 March 2017

On 9 March 2017, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in the Netherlands reported a case of yellow fever to WHO. The patient is a Dutch adult female traveller who visited Suriname from the middle of February until early March 2017. She was not vaccinated against yellow fever.

The case was confirmed for yellow fever in the Netherlands by RT-PCR in two serum samples taken with an interval of three days at the Erasmus University Medical Center (Erasmus MC), Rotterdam.

The presence of yellow fever virus was confirmed on 9 March 2017 by PCR and sequencing at Erasmus MC, and by PCR on a different target at the Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany.

While in Suriname, the patient spent nights in Paramaribo and visited places around Paramaribo, including the districts of Commewijne (Frederiksdorp and Peperpot) and Brokopondo (Brownsberg), the latter is considered to be the most probable place of infection.

She experienced onset of symptoms (headache and high fever) on 28 February 2017 and was admitted to an intensive care unit (University Medical Center) in the Netherlands on 3 March 2017 with liver failure. The patient is currently in critical condition.

Suriname is considered an area at risk for yellow fever and requires a yellow fever vaccination certificate at entry for travellers over one year of age arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever, according to the WHO list of countries with risk of yellow fever transmission; WHO also recommends yellow fever vaccination to all travellers aged nine months and older.

This is the first reported case of yellow fever in Suriname since 1972.

 

Public health response

This report of a yellow fever case in the Netherlands with travel history to Suriname has triggered further investigations.

Following this event, health authorities in Suriname have implemented several measures to investigate and respond to a potential outbreak in their country, including:

  • Enhancing vaccination activity to increase vaccination coverage among residents. Suriname will continue with its national vaccination programme and will focus on the district of Brokopondo. A catch-up vaccination campaign is also being conducted to increase coverage in Brownsweg.
  • Enhancing epidemiologic and entomologic surveillance including strengthening laboratory capacity.
  • Implementing vector control activities in the district Brokopondo.
  • Carrying out a survey of dead monkeys in the suspected areas.
  • Conducting social mobilization to eliminate Aedes aegypti breeding sites (e.g. by covering water containers/ barrels).
  • Issuing a press release to alert the public.
  • Mapping of the suspect area of Brownsweg, as well as the Peperpot Resort.

 

WHO risk assessment

Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease that has the potential to spread rapidly and cause serious public health impact in unimmunized populations. Vaccination is the most important means of preventing the infection.

Suriname is a country with a risk of yellow fever transmission in endemic areas. Vaccination is recommended before travelling to Suriname for all travellers aged nine months and older. Suriname requires proof of vaccination against yellow fever for all travellers over one year of age.

Suriname introduced the yellow fever vaccination into the routine program for all children aged one years old in 2014.The estimate of national immunization coverage is 86% and only includes children aged one years old. The unvaccinated populations living in the endemic areas are at high risk of yellow fever infection.

The current report of a travel-associated case provides evidence to consider local transmission of yellow fever in the country. More investigations are also needed for animal health sectors.

In addition, Suriname shares borders with Brazil, which has been experiencing yellow fever outbreaks since January 2017 (the largest outbreak of yellow fever in the Americas in the past three decades).

Sequencing and comparison to cases from various other countries is still ongoing, but it is likely that the case is not related to the yellow fever outbreak in Brazil.

As South America is currently experiencing a cyclical increase in the number of cases in non-human primates and human cases, an increase in the number of cases in unvaccinated travellers returning from affected areas in South America is not unexpected.

The risk of spread of the disease by non-immunized travellers from Suriname to the countries that have the vector for the transmission of the yellow fever virus is considered to be low but cannot be ruled out.

Currently, five countries in South America report yellow fever virus activity: Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia and Ecuador.

This multi-country yellow fever virus activity might reflect current, wide-spread ecological conditions that favour elevated yellow fever virus transmissibility among wildlife and spill-over to humans.

The sequencing analysis of currently circulating strains in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Suriname should provide insight whether the human cases in these countries are epidemiologically linked or represent multiple, independent spill-over events without extensive ongoing community transmission.

 

WHO advice

Advice to travellers planning to visit areas at risk for yellow fever transmission in Brazil includes:

  • Vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days prior to the travel. A single dose of yellow fever vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained immunity and life-long protection against yellow fever disease and a booster dose of the vaccine is not needed;
  • Travellers with contraindications for yellow fever vaccine (children below nine months, pregnant or breastfeeding women, people with severe hypersensitivity to egg antigens, and severe immunodeficiency) or over 60 years of age should consult their health professional for advice based on risk benefit analysis;
  • Observation of measures to avoid mosquito bites;
  • Awareness of symptoms and signs of yellow fever;
  • Promotion of health care seeking behaviour while travelling and upon return from an area at risk for yellow fever transmission, especially to a country where the establishment of a local cycle of transmission is possible (i.e. where the competent vector is present).
  • Seeking care in case of symptoms and signs of yellow fever, while travelling and upon return from areas at risk for yellow fever transmission.

This case report illustrates the importance of yellow fever vaccination for travellers to countries with risk of yellow fever virus transmission, even for countries that have not reported cases for decades.

WHO, therefore, urges Members States to comply with the requirement for yellow fever vaccination for travellers to certain countries and the recommendation for all travellers to countries or areas with risk of yellow fever transmission (see ‘Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations; malaria situation; and other vaccination requirements – List of countries, territories and areas’ in related links).

Viraemic returning travellers may pose a risk for the establishment of local cycles of yellow fever transmission predominantly in areas where the competent vector is present. If there are medical grounds for not getting vaccinated, this must be certified by the appropriate authorities.

WHO does not recommend that any general travel or trade restriction be applied on Suriname based on the information available for this event.

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Yellow Fever; the Netherlands; Suriname.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Bosnia [infected #wildbirds] (#OIE, Mar. 28 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Bosnia [infected #wildbirds].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, wild birds epizootics in Bosnia.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (infection with) (non-poultry including wild birds) H5N8, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Information received on 28/03/2017 from Dr Ljubomir Kalaba, Director, Veterinary Office, Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 1
    • Date of start of the event    28/02/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event    28/02/2017
    • Report date    28/03/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    28/03/2017
    • Reason for notification    Reoccurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    02/2006
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 1
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Mute Swan:Cygnus olor(Anatidae)  - … – 1    - 1   - … – 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Mute Swan:Cygnus olor(Anatidae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Contact with wild species


(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Wild Birds; Bosnia.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Vietnam [two #poultry #outbreaks] (#OIE, Mar. 28 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Vietnam [two #poultry #outbreaks].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N1 subtype, poultry epizootics in Vietnam.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, Vietnam

Information received on 28/03/2017 from Dr Dong Pham Van, Director General, Chief Veterinary Officer, Department of Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Hanoï, Vietnam

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 7
    • Date of start of the event    14/02/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event    15/02/2017
    • Report date    28/03/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    28/03/2017
    • Reason for notification    Reoccurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    10/2016
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N1
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    the whole country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 2
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Birds    - 2098    - 350    - 250    - 1848    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds    - 16.68%    - 11.92%    - 71.43%    - 100.00%
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive


(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N1 ; Poultry; Vietnam.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Slovakia [infected #wildbirds] (#OIE, Mar. 28 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Slovakia [infected #wildbirds].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, wild birds epizootics in Slovakia.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (infection with) (non-poultry including wild birds) H5N8, Slovakia

Information received on 28/03/2017 from Dr Jozef Bires , Director & Chief Veterinary Officer , State Veterinary and Food Administration , Ministry of Agriculture, BRATISLAVA, Slovakia

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 8
    • Date of start of the event    02/01/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event    03/01/2017
    • Report date    28/03/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    28/03/2017
    • Reason for notification    Reoccurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    24/02/2006
    • Manifestation of disease    Sub-clinical infection
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Laboratory (basic), Laboratory (advanced), Necropsy
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 1
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Grey Heron:Ardea cinerea(Ardeidae)  - … – 1    - 1    - 0    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Grey Heron:Ardea cinerea(Ardeidae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Contact with wild species


(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Wild Birds; Slovakia.

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#HK, Suspected #MERS case reported (CHP, March 28 ‘17)

 

Title: #HK, Suspected #MERS case reported.

Subject: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, suspected imported case in Hong Kong.

Source: Centre for Health Protection, Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Suspected MERS case reported

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The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health today (March 28) reported a suspected case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and again urged the public to pay special attention to safety during travel, taking due consideration of health risks of the places of visit.

The case is detailed below:

  • Sex – Female
  • Age – 59
  • Affected area involved - Dubai, United Arab Emirates
  • Risk exposure - Camel riding
  • Hospital - Tuen Mun Hospital
  • Condition – Stable
  • MERS-CoV preliminary test result – Negative

(…)

The public may visit:

Tour leaders and tour guides operating overseas tours are advised to refer to the CHP's health advice on MERS.

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Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Updates; MERS-CoV.

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#Avian #Influenza #H5N1 & #H7N9, #Human cases reported in #Egypt and #China (@WHO, March 28 ‘17)

 

Title: #Avian #Influenza #H5N1 & #H7N9, #Human cases reported in #Egypt and #China.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N1 & H7N9 subtype, human cases in Egypt and China.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), full PDF document: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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{Note for the Readers: Should the internal viewer not work into your environment, please follow this link to the full document: https://1drv.ms/b/s!ArIyah1g_f4uvFG2tMgaSM5H9DkW  }

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Influenza at the human-animal interface - Summary and assessment, 14 February to 16 March 2017

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Worldwide; Egypt; China; Avian Influenza; H5N1; H7N9; Human.

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#USA, #Texas: Reported #Zika Virus Cases – March 28, 2017 (DoH, edited)

 

Title: #USA, #Texas: Reported #Zika Virus Cases – March 28, 2017.

Subject: Zika Virus, current epidemiological situation in Texas.

Source: US State of Texas Department of Health, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Reported Zika Virus Cases – March 28, 2017

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DSHS provides updates every Tuesday on the number of Zika virus disease cases in Texas by the patient’s county of residence.

As of the week ending March 24, nine Zika cases have been reported for 2017, with 317 cases reported for 2015 and 2016.

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[County – No. of Cases]

  1. Bexar – 1
  2. Brazoria – 1
  3. Cameron – 2
  4. Collin – 1
  5. Dallas – 1
  6. Denton – 1
  7. Lubbock – 1
  8. Smith – 1

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Full data for previous years is available at TexasZika.org.

DSHS will continue to update the page as additional 2016 cases are reported.

 

National Zika Pregnancy Registry

Texas has reported 234 individuals into the CDC’s Zika Pregnancy Registry. The registry includes pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika infection and their infants, regardless of laboratory evidence. Texas provides data to the Zika Pregnancy Registry weekly.

The registry casts a wider net – beyond reported Zika cases – to track and follow pregnancies that may have been impacted by Zika.

(…)

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Keywords: USA; Updates; Texas; Zika Virus.

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#USA, #Alabama: No New #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 #Poultry #Outbreaks reported as of March 27 2017 (DoA, edited)

 

Title: USA, Alabama: No New Avian Influenza H7N9 Poultry Outbreaks reported as of March 27 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype (North American Lineage), poultry epizootics in the US.

Source: US State of Alabama Department of Agriculture, full page: (LINK).

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Avian Influenza in Alabama – Timeline

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|-- Click here for the latest AI Timeline Graphic –|

 

March 27, 2017

  • Sample collection from commercial and backyard flocks continues within the surveillance zone surrounding commercial breeder flock in Cullman County, Ala. confirmed positive for low pathogenic H7N9 avian influenza (LPAI) by NVSL on March 22, 2017.
  • The surveillance zone established surrounding quarantined Chattooga Co., Ga premises includes portions of northeast Alabama.
  • Poultry technicians have collected samples from commercial and backyard flocks on premises within the surveillance zone.
  • At this time, all samples collected have tested negative for avian influenza.

(…)

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Keywords: USA; Updates; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Poultry; Alabama.

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#China, #Anhui province: No New #Human cases of #H7N9 #influenza in the last twenty-five days (Mar. 28 ‘17)

 

Title: China, Anhui province: No New Human cases of H7N9 influenza in the last twenty-five days.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype (Asia Lineage), poultry enzootic and human cases in China.

Source: Local Media, full page: (LINK). Article in Chinese, edited.

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Anhui consecutive 25 days without new human H7N9 local cases

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2017-03-28 11:11 / Source: Anhui Daily /  Editor: Tang Qian

March 27 - the Anhui Provincial Health Commission informed that from March 20 to March 26, Wuhu City, reported an imported case of H7N9 influenza.

Since March 3, Anhui province has not reported any new locally acquired case for 25 consecutive days.

According to reports, nearly a week, the provinces continue to epidemic monitoring, joint defense control, the implementation of closed poultry market and other sources of control measures and external environmental disinfection, case treatment and other work, to reduce the incidence of new cases to prevent the epidemic rebound.

At present, H7N9 epidemic prevention and control continue to maintain the momentum of containment. Risk assessment showed that H7N9 virus has not yet acquired efficient human to human transmission ability, the early use of neuraminidase inhibitors and other anti-influenza drugs can effectively reduce the incidence of severe cases.

(…)

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Keywords: China; Anhui; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Human.

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#Panama, a #fatal case of #hantavirus #infection sparks alarm (Infomed, March 28 ‘17)

 

Title: #Panama, a #fatal case of #hantavirus #infection sparks alarm.

Subject: Hantavirus, fatal infection in Panama.

Source: Infomed with La Prensa Latina materials, full page: (LINK). Article in Spanish.

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Muerte por hantavirus crea alarma en Panamá

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by Lic. Heidy Ramírez Vázquez 

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Alarma en la sociedad panameña provocó este lunes la confirmación del fallecimiento de un paciente por un hantavirus, en la central provincia de Los Santos, donde anteriormente se reportaron brotes estacionarios de la enfermedad.

La víctima fue un paciente de 27 años de edad, diagnosticado el 15 de marzo pasado y con una evolución acelerada del deterioro de su estado, aunque estaba bajo atención hospitalaria, características de la agresividad de esta dolencia que aparece dos semanas después del contagio.

Este fue el segundo caso del virus en 2017, porque anteriormente un anciano de 75 años de edad contrajo la enfermedad, pero el sistema de salud no informó hasta el momento del estado de ese paciente.

Desde principios del presente siglo se detectaron los primeros infestados del hantavirus en la región de la Península de Azuero, donde se encuentra Los Santos, y como regla se hace presente durante la temporada seca, como sucede actualmente, lo que obligó en el pasado a decretar alertas epidemiológicas.

(…)

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Keywords: Panama; Hantavirus.

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